|March 8, 2014|
Minnan is one of the sub-languages of the Chinese language and is mainly spoken in southern Fujian and Taiwan. It is also spoken by many overseas Chinese in Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Indonesia, and is known in Southeast Asia as "Hokkien" (福建話; pinyin F?ji?n hu?; Minnan: Hok4-kien3-oa7). Strictly speaking, it should be known as Southern Hokkien to distinguish it from Minbei (Northern Min) and Mindong (Eastern Min), the language of Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian province.
In particular, Penang Hokkien is based on the dialect of Minnan spoken in the Zhangzhou (漳州 Hokkien: Chiang1-chiu1) prefecture of Fujian. It is said that it most closely resembles the dialect spoken in Longhai (龍海 Hokkien: Liong5-hai2) county, around the city of Haicheng (海澄 Hokkien: Hai2-teng5). In Southeast Asia, similar dialects are spoken in the states bordering Penang, and in Medan, Indonesia|Medan.
The tones in Penang Hokkien are:
# 陰平 Yin-ping |55|
# 上聲 Shang-sheng |51|
# 陰去 Yin-qu |21|
# 陰入 Yin-ru |2|
# 陽平 Yang-ping |25|
# 陽去 Yang-qu |21|
# 陽入 Yang-ru |5|
The numbers in | | reflect the tone contours, with 5 being the highest and 1 the lowest.
As in the Xiamen (Amoy) standard, the Shangsheng is not distinguished into Yin and Yang, and there is thus no 6th tone. However, as in the Zhangzhou dialect the two Qu tones are virtually identical, except in their sandhi forms.
Like in other Minnan dialects, the tone of a syllable in Penang Hokkien depends on where in a phrase or sentence the relevant syllable is placed. For example, the word 牛 gu5 is pronounced with a rising |25| tone, but when it is placed in front of another syllable in 牛肉 gu5-bah4 is pronounced with to a low |21| tone.
The rules which apply when a syllable is placed in front of a connected syllable in standard Minnan, simply put, are as follows:
For more detailed rules on Minnan tone sandhi, see Taiwanese (linguistics).
Most of the differences between Penang Hokkien and Amoy Hokkien exist also in Zhangzhou, e.g.:
Although Penang Hokkien is obviously based on the Zhangzhou dialect, there are some obvious differences, which in many cases result from the influence of other Minnan dialects, e.g.:
Like other dialects in Malaysia and Singapore, Penang Hokkien borrows heavily from Malay, but sometimes to a greater extent, e.g.:
Penang Hokkien has also borrowed numerous words from English, but these tend to be more technical and less well embedded than the Malay words, e.g.
Category:Languages of Malaysia
:minnan:| Holopedia - Wikipedia in Peh-oe-ji
GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Penang Hokkien".
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