|March 8, 2014|
Goguryeo (also known as Koguryo; : Gāogōulí) (1st century BC-668) was a kingdom in southern Manchuria and northern Korea. It is referred to as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, along with Baekje and Silla.
The modern name "Korea" derives from the medieval Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which in turn took its name from a contracted form of "Goguryeo."
According to Samguk Sagi, King Jumong (posthumously called King Dongmyeongseong of Goguryeo|King Dongmyeongseong) founded the kingdom in 37 BC around what is now the border between China and North Korea.
It gained power while China was fragmented.
The maximum extent of the kingdom was reached during the reigns of King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo|King Gwanggaeto the Great and his son King Jangsu of Goguryeo|King Jangsu. During this period they ruled three fourths of Korean peninsula and most of Manchuria. It was overthrown by an alliance of Silla and Chinese Tang Empire in 668. Tang initially attempted to set up a military government called the Protectorate General to Pacify the East, but this did not last. The southernmost part of Goguryeo was seized by Silla, the northwestern part by Tang, and the rest was succeeded by Balhae.
Balhae, established in 698 claimed it as successor of Goguryeo in her diplomatic negotiations with Japan. Taebong, initially called Hu-Goguryeo ("Later Goguryeo"), claimed her succession of Goguryeo and so did Goryeo, which was even named after Goguryeo.
Remains of castles, palaces and several artifacts have been found in North Korea, including ancient paintings in a Complex_of_Goguryeo_Tombs|Goguryeo tomb complex. Some ruins are also still visible in Manchuria, for example at Onyeosan ("Five Maiden Peaks") near Ji'an (集安) in northeastern China, thought to be the site of the first city of Goguryeo. Some cultural artifacts still remain in modern Korean culture, for example, Ondol, Goguryeo's unique floor heating system. A modernized version can be found in the floor of every modern house in Korea.
The Goguryeo language is unknown except for a small number of words, which mostly suggests that it was significantly different from the language of Silla or Tungusic languages. The Goguryeo names for government posts are mostly similar to those of Baekje and Silla. Chinese record suggest that the languages of Goguryeo and Fuyu (Buyeo), East Okjeo, and Old Joseon (Go-Joseon) were similar, while Goguryeo language differed significantly from that of Malgal (Mohe). Similarities in certain vocabulary with Old Japanese language|Old Japanese have been noted as well. http://www.msu.edu/~jk13/Abs.Beckwith.pdf Some words of Goguryeo origin can be found in the old Korean language (early 10th-late 14th centuries) but most were replaced by Silla-originated ones before long. Some linguists propose the so-called "Fuyu languages" that included the languages of Fuyu, Goguryeo, and the upper class of Baekje, and Old Japanese. Supporters of the Altaic languages|Altaic language family often classifies the Goguryeo language as a member of that language family. Striking similarities between Baekje and Goguryeo can also be found.
Koreans have traditionally viewed Goguryeo as a Korean state, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The Chinese have traditionally viewed Goguryeo as a foreign state that was part of the China-centred tribute system. Then, in accordance with a more inclusive view of the modern People's Republic of China as a multi-ethnic nation state, the concept of Chinese history was expanded to encompass all states that developed principally in the current territory of China. The accepted position among Chinese government historians therefore became that the history of Goguryeo before the capital was transferred to Pyongyang in the Korean Peninsula was to be considered part of Chinese history.
Some have interpreted Chinese position in the 1990s as implying that Goguryeo was to be treated as a regional power of China as well as interpreting efforts by Chinese scholars to describe the history of Goguryeo as part of Chinese history to de-emphasise or deny Korea's claim to the kingdom's legacy. The Chinese government launched a 20-billion-yuan (2.4 billion US dollars) project dealing with China's Northeast in 2002 whose aims have been interpreted by some as treating Goguryeo as a local government within China, rewriting history textbooks and restoring important Goguryeo sites in China. This was followed by protests from scholars from Korea, Japan, and Russia. As of 2004 this was threatening to lead to diplomatic disputes between China and South Korea and was contributing to growing anti-Chinese sentiment in the latter. As such, the subject of Goguryeo history now overlaps somewhat with political disputes, although all of the governments involved seem to exhibit no desire to see the issue damage relations. The existence of a sizeable ethnic Korean minority in the former Goguryeo territories in China, the issue of political influence over North Korea in the case of a collapse of the regime, and some nervousness over the rapidly increasing power of China add to the fuel of the dispute.
See Gando Convention for more information about modern politics in the area.
The names of the rulers of Goguryeo are given first in their Korean Language|Korean pronunciation, and then in their Mandarin Chinese pronunciation.
#동명성왕 King Dongmyeong of Goguryeo|King Dongmyeong (37 BC-19 BC)
#유리왕 King Yuri of Goguryeo|King Yuri (19 BC-AD 18)
#대무신왕 King Daemusin of Goguryeo|King Daemusin (18-44)
#민중왕 King Minjung of Goguryeo|King Minjung (44-48)
#모본왕 King Mobon of Goguryeo|King Mobon (48-53)
#태조대왕 King Gukjo of Goguryeo|King Gukjo (53-146)
#차대왕 King Chadae of Goguryeo|King Chadae (146-165)
#신대왕 King Sindae of Goguryeo|King Sindae (165-179)
#고국천왕 King Gogukcheon of Goguryeo|King Gogukcheon (179-197)
#산상왕 King Sansang of Goguryeo|King Sansang (197-227)
#동천왕 King Dongcheon of Goguryeo|King Dongcheon (227-247)
#중천왕 King Jungcheon of Goguryeo|King Jungcheon (247-270)
#서천왕 King Seocheon of Goguryeo|King Seocheon (270-292)
#봉상왕 King Bongsang of Goguryeo|King Bongsang (292-300)
#미천왕 King Micheon of Goguryeo|King Micheon (300-330)
#고국원왕 King Gogugwon of Goguryeo|King Gogugwon (331-371)
#소수림왕 King Sosurim of Goguryeo|King Sosurim (371-384)
#고국양왕 King Gogugyang of Goguryeo|King Gogugyang (384-391)
#광개토대왕 King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo|King Gwanggaeto the Great (391-413)
#장수왕 King Jangsu of Goguryeo|King Jangsu (413-490)
#문자명왕 King Munjamyeong of Goguryeo|King Munjamyeong (491-519)
#안장왕 King Anjang of Goguryeo|King Anjang (519-531)
#안원왕 King Anwon of Goguryeo|King Anwon (531-545)
#양원왕 King Yangwon of Goguryeo|King Yangwon (545-559)
#평원왕 King Pyeongwon of Goguryeo|King Pyeongwon (559-590)
#영양왕 King Yeongyang of Goguryeo|King Yeongyang (590-618)
#영류왕 King Yeongnyu of Goguryeo|King Yeongnyu (618-641)
#보장왕 King Bojang of Goguryeo|King Bojang (642-668)
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