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March 8, 2014
Table of Contents
1 Introduction


Korean Name
Revised Romanization of Korean|Revised Romanization Goguryeo
McCune-Reischauer Koguryŏ
Hangul 고구려
Hanja 高句麗
Chinese Name
Chinese characters 高句麗
Pinyin Gāogōulí

Goguryeo (also known as Koguryo; : Gāogōulí) (1st century BC-668) was a kingdom in southern Manchuria and northern Korea. It is referred to as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, along with Baekje and Silla.

The modern name "Korea" derives from the medieval Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which in turn took its name from a contracted form of "Goguryeo."


According to Samguk Sagi, King Jumong (posthumously called King Dongmyeongseong of Goguryeo|King Dongmyeongseong) founded the kingdom in 37 BC around what is now the border between China and North Korea.
It gained power while China was fragmented.
The maximum extent of the kingdom was reached during the reigns of King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo|King Gwanggaeto the Great and his son King Jangsu of Goguryeo|King Jangsu. During this period they ruled three fourths of Korean peninsula and most of Manchuria. It was overthrown by an alliance of Silla and Chinese Tang Empire in 668. Tang initially attempted to set up a military government called the Protectorate General to Pacify the East, but this did not last. The southernmost part of Goguryeo was seized by Silla, the northwestern part by Tang, and the rest was succeeded by Balhae.

Balhae, established in 698 claimed it as successor of Goguryeo in her diplomatic negotiations with Japan. Taebong, initially called Hu-Goguryeo ("Later Goguryeo"), claimed her succession of Goguryeo and so did Goryeo, which was even named after Goguryeo.

Remains of castles, palaces and several artifacts have been found in North Korea, including ancient paintings in a Complex_of_Goguryeo_Tombs|Goguryeo tomb complex. Some ruins are also still visible in Manchuria, for example at Onyeosan ("Five Maiden Peaks") near Ji'an (集安) in northeastern China, thought to be the site of the first city of Goguryeo. Some cultural artifacts still remain in modern Korean culture, for example, Ondol, Goguryeo's unique floor heating system. A modernized version can be found in the floor of every modern house in Korea.

The Goguryeo language is unknown except for a small number of words, which mostly suggests that it was significantly different from the language of Silla or Tungusic languages. The Goguryeo names for government posts are mostly similar to those of Baekje and Silla. Chinese record suggest that the languages of Goguryeo and Fuyu (Buyeo), East Okjeo, and Old Joseon (Go-Joseon) were similar, while Goguryeo language differed significantly from that of Malgal (Mohe). Similarities in certain vocabulary with Old Japanese language|Old Japanese have been noted as well. Some words of Goguryeo origin can be found in the old Korean language (early 10th-late 14th centuries) but most were replaced by Silla-originated ones before long. Some linguists propose the so-called "Fuyu languages" that included the languages of Fuyu, Goguryeo, and the upper class of Baekje, and Old Japanese. Supporters of the Altaic languages|Altaic language family often classifies the Goguryeo language as a member of that language family. Striking similarities between Baekje and Goguryeo can also be found.

Koreans have traditionally viewed Goguryeo as a Korean state, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The Chinese have traditionally viewed Goguryeo as a foreign state that was part of the China-centred tribute system. Then, in accordance with a more inclusive view of the modern People's Republic of China as a multi-ethnic nation state, the concept of Chinese history was expanded to encompass all states that developed principally in the current territory of China. The accepted position among Chinese government historians therefore became that the history of Goguryeo before the capital was transferred to Pyongyang in the Korean Peninsula was to be considered part of Chinese history.

Some have interpreted Chinese position in the 1990s as implying that Goguryeo was to be treated as a regional power of China as well as interpreting efforts by Chinese scholars to describe the history of Goguryeo as part of Chinese history to de-emphasise or deny Korea's claim to the kingdom's legacy. The Chinese government launched a 20-billion-yuan (2.4 billion US dollars) project dealing with China's Northeast in 2002 whose aims have been interpreted by some as treating Goguryeo as a local government within China, rewriting history textbooks and restoring important Goguryeo sites in China. This was followed by protests from scholars from Korea, Japan, and Russia. As of 2004 this was threatening to lead to diplomatic disputes between China and South Korea and was contributing to growing anti-Chinese sentiment in the latter. As such, the subject of Goguryeo history now overlaps somewhat with political disputes, although all of the governments involved seem to exhibit no desire to see the issue damage relations. The existence of a sizeable ethnic Korean minority in the former Goguryeo territories in China, the issue of political influence over North Korea in the case of a collapse of the regime, and some nervousness over the rapidly increasing power of China add to the fuel of the dispute.

See Gando Convention for more information about modern politics in the area.

The names of the rulers of Goguryeo are given first in their Korean Language|Korean pronunciation, and then in their Mandarin Chinese pronunciation.

Korean Pronunciation
#동명성왕 King Dongmyeong of Goguryeo|King Dongmyeong (37 BC-19 BC)
#유리왕 King Yuri of Goguryeo|King Yuri (19 BC-AD 18)
#대무신왕 King Daemusin of Goguryeo|King Daemusin (18-44)
#민중왕 King Minjung of Goguryeo|King Minjung (44-48)
#모본왕 King Mobon of Goguryeo|King Mobon (48-53)
#태조대왕 King Gukjo of Goguryeo|King Gukjo (53-146)
#차대왕 King Chadae of Goguryeo|King Chadae (146-165)
#신대왕 King Sindae of Goguryeo|King Sindae (165-179)
#고국천왕 King Gogukcheon of Goguryeo|King Gogukcheon (179-197)
#산상왕 King Sansang of Goguryeo|King Sansang (197-227)
#동천왕 King Dongcheon of Goguryeo|King Dongcheon (227-247)
#중천왕 King Jungcheon of Goguryeo|King Jungcheon (247-270)
#서천왕 King Seocheon of Goguryeo|King Seocheon (270-292)
#봉상왕 King Bongsang of Goguryeo|King Bongsang (292-300)
#미천왕 King Micheon of Goguryeo|King Micheon (300-330)
#고국원왕 King Gogugwon of Goguryeo|King Gogugwon (331-371)
#소수림왕 King Sosurim of Goguryeo|King Sosurim (371-384)
#고국양왕 King Gogugyang of Goguryeo|King Gogugyang (384-391)
#광개토대왕 King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo|King Gwanggaeto the Great (391-413)
#장수왕 King Jangsu of Goguryeo|King Jangsu (413-490)
#문자명왕 King Munjamyeong of Goguryeo|King Munjamyeong (491-519)
#안장왕 King Anjang of Goguryeo|King Anjang (519-531)
#안원왕 King Anwon of Goguryeo|King Anwon (531-545)
#양원왕 King Yangwon of Goguryeo|King Yangwon (545-559)
#평원왕 King Pyeongwon of Goguryeo|King Pyeongwon (559-590)
#영양왕 King Yeongyang of Goguryeo|King Yeongyang (590-618)
#영류왕 King Yeongnyu of Goguryeo|King Yeongnyu (618-641)
#보장왕 King Bojang of Goguryeo|King Bojang (642-668)

Mandarin Pronunciation

Sovereigns of Goguryeo (Gaogouli) 1st century BC-668
Legendary line
Samguk Sagi
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names
東明聖王|dong1 ming2 sheng4 wang2 Gao Zhumeng|高朱蒙 gao1 zhu1 meng2
Zhumeng|朱蒙 zhu1 meng2
Zou?|鄒? zou1 ?
Xiang|象解 xiang4 jie3
琉璃王|liu2 li2 wang2
琉璃明王|liu2 li2 ming2 wang2
Leili|類利 lei4 li4
Ruliu|孺留 ru2 liu2
大武神王|da4 wu3 shen2 wang2
大解朱留王|da4 jie3 zhu1 liu2 wang2
Wuxu|無恤 wu2 xu4
閔中王|min3 zhong1 wang2 Jiesezhu|解色朱 jie3 se4 zhu1
慕本王|mu4 ben3 wang2 Jieyou|解憂 jie3 you1
Jieail?|解愛婁 jie3 ai4 l?3
Personal Names
Zhumeng|朱蒙 zhu1 meng2(zu mong)
L?da|閭達|l?2 da2
*Shil?xie|始閭諧 shi3 l?2 xie2
Ruli|如栗 ru2 li4
Molai|莫來 mo4 lai2

Personal Names
Zoumou|鄒牟 zou1 mou2
Ruliu|儒留 ru2 liu2
Dazhuliu|大朱留 da4 zhu1 liu2

Great king line

Samguk Sagi
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names
大祖王|da4 zu3 wang2
大祖大王|da4 zu3 da4 wang2
國祖王|guo2 zu3 wang2
Gong|宮 gong1
Yushu|於漱 yu2 shu4
次大王|zi1 da4 wang2 Suicheng|遂成 sui4 cheng2
新大王|xin1 da4 wang2 Bogu|伯固 bo2 gu4
Boju|伯句 bo2 ju4

Houhanshu, etc
Personal Names
Gong|宮 gong1
Suicheng|遂成 sui4 cheng2
Bogu|伯固 bo2 gu4

Wandu-Guonei line

Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns
故國川王|gu4 guo2 chuan1 wang2
國襄王|guo2 xiang1 wang2
Nanwu|男武 nan2 wu3
Yiyimo|伊夷謨 yi1 yi2 mo2
山上王|shan1 shang4 wang2 Tingyou|廷優 ting2 you1
Weigong|位宮 wei4 gong1
東川王|dong1 chuan1 wang2
東襄王|dong1 xiang1 wang2
Youweiju|憂位居 you1 wei4 ju1
Jiaozhi|郊彘 jiao1 zhi4
中川王|zhong1 chuan1 wang2
中襄王|zhong1 xiang1 wang2
Ranfu|然弗 ran2 fu2 227-248
西川王|xi1 chuan1 wang2
西襄王|xi1 xiang1 wang2
Yaolu|藥盧 yao42 lu2
Rouyou|若友 rou4 you3
烽上王|feng1 shang4 wang2
鴙葛王|zhi4 ge3 wang2
Xiangfu|相夫 xiang1 fu2
Chashil?|插矢婁 cha1 shi3 l?3
美川王|mei3 chuan1 wang2
好攘王|hao3 rang3 wang2
Yifu|乙弗 yi3 fu2
Youfu|憂拂 you1 fu2
故國原王|gu4 guo2 yuan2 wang2
國岡上王|guo2 gang1 shang4 wang2
Siyou|斯由 si1 you2
Liu|劉 liu2
小獸林王|xiao3 shou4 lin2 wang2
小解朱留王|xiao3 jie3 zhu1 liu2 wang2
Qiufu|丘夫 qiu1 fu1 371-384
故國攘王|gu4 guo2 rang2 wang2 Yilian|伊連 yi1 lian2
Yuzhizhi|於只支 yu2 zhi3 zhi1
廣開土王|guang3 kai1 tu3 wang2 Tande|談德 tan2 de2
An|安 an1

P'yŏngyang line

Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns
長壽王|chang2 shou4 wang2 Julian|巨連 ju4 lian2
Gao Lian|高璉 gao1 lian2
文咨王|wen2 zi1 wang2
文咨明王|wen2 zi1 ming2 wang2
明治好王|ming2 zhi4 hao3 wang2
Luoyun|羅雲 luo2 yun2
Gao Yun|高雲 gao1 yun2
安藏王|an1 zang4 wang2 Xingan|興安 xing1 an1
Gao An|高安 gao1 an1
安原王|an1 yuan2 wang2 Baoting|寶廷 bao3 ting2
Gao Ting|高廷 gao1 ting2
陽原王|yang2 yuan2 wang2
陽崗上好王|yang2 gang1 shang4 hao3 wang2
Pingcheng|平成 ping2 cheng2 545-559
平原王|ping2 yuan2 wang2
平崗上好王|ping2 gang1 shang4 hao3 wang2
平崗上王|ping2 gang1 shang4 wang2
狛鵠香岡上王|po4 ge2 xiang1 gang1 shang4 wang2
Yangcheng|陽成 yang2 cheng2
Tang|湯 tang1
Gao Yang|高陽 gao1 yang2
嬰陽王|ying1 yang2 wang2
平陽王|ping2 yang2 wang2
Gao Yuan|高元 gao1 yuan2
Dayuan|大元 da4 yuan2
建武王|jian4 wu3 wang2
營留王|ying2 liu2 wang2
Gao Jianwu|高建武 gao1 jian4 wu3
Cheng|成 cheng2
Gao Wu|高武 gao1 wu3
寶藏王|bao3 zang4 wang2 Gao Zang|高藏 gao1 zang4
Baozang|寶藏 bao3 zang4

  • The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early 5th century when King Changshou built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contacts with Northern Wei.

  • The great king line with the following two kings was formed on the basis of Chinese documents like Houhanshu. It contains contradictions and mismatches.

  • The royal surname Go/Gao (高) seems to have been adopted in the early 5th century when King Guangkaitu was acknowledged as a member of the Northern Yan imperial family by Gao Yun (高雲 or Murong Yun 慕容雲), Emperor of Northern Yan, whose grandfather He (和) was in line of the Gaogouli royal family. According to Jinshu, Gao Yun took the surname Gao from Gaoyang (高陽氏 or Zhuan Xu, one of Sanhuangwudi) but it is doubtful. Later history books say that Go/Gao was named after the country name Goguryeo/Gaogouli.

  • List of Korea-related topics

  • Rulers of Korea

  • Anak Tomb No.3

  • Ethnic groups in Chinese history

  • Korean history in Manchuria

Category:Ancient peoples
Category:Fuyu languages
Category:Korean history


This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Koguryo".

Last Modified:   2005-03-13

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